Cationic lipids involved in gene transfer increase intracellular calcium level/Les lipides cationiques impliqués dans le transfert de gène augmentent le niveau de calcium intracellulaire
Cationic lipids are efficient tools to introduce nucleic acids and proteins into cells. Elucidation of the mechanism and cellular pathways associated to such a transport has been relatively slow, even though significant progress has been made in the characterization of the intracellular trafficking of cationic lipid/DNA complexes. Surprisingly, little is known about the effects of these delivery vectors on cell functioning. In the present thesis, we show that cationic lipids and cationic lipid/DNA complexes strongly increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The end point of the Ca2+ increase was ~400 nM from a basal level of ~100 nM. The [Ca2+]i increase was studied using K562 and Jurkat cells cultured in vitro. This effect is weakened following addition of DNA to cationic liposomes, although remaining very large at cationic lipid/DNA ratios commonly used for cell transfection experiments. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ did not abolish this effect significantly and preincubating K562 cells with the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin strongly abolished intracellular Ca2+ concentration increase, indicating that Ca2+ was released mainly from internal Ca2+ stores sensitive to thapsigargin. Pretreatment of the cells with the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 blocked the intracellular Ca2+ concentration rise, suggesting an inositol pathway-dependent mechanism. LDH release assay indicates that in the conditions used for fluorescence measurement and in those used to transfer DNA into cells, cationic liposomes diC14-amidine and DOTAP had no massive cytotoxic effects. Cationic liposomes showed more toxicity than their corresponding complexes; this toxicity decreases in the presence of serum. The effect of cationic lipids on phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) was quantitatively assessed using phosphatidylinositol (PI) and radiolabeled phosphatidylinositol ([3H]-PI). Incorporation of diC14-amidine into PC/PI vesicle activated PI-PLC and was shown to activate the hydrolysis of PI and [3H]-PI. Our data may suggest that mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ by complex could have an effect on the transfection process itself. These results indicate for the first time that cationic lipids and cationic lipid/DNA complexes are not inert and can affect the functioning of the cells by increasing their intracellular Ca2+.
Advisor:Vandenbranden Michel; Droogmans Louis; Ruysschaert Jean-Marie; Vandenbussche Guy; Goormaghtigh Erik; Raussens Vincent; Wattiaux-De Coninck Simone
School:Université libre de Bruxelles
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:lipid dna complex cationic lipids gene transfer intracellular calcium cell functioning
Date of Publication:02/15/2007