A Bayesian Framework for Target Tracking using Acoustic and Image Measurements
Target tracking is a broad subject area extensively studied in many engineering disciplines. In this thesis, target tracking implies the temporal estimation of target features such as the target's direction-of-arrival (DOA), the target's boundary pixels in a sequence of images, and/or the target's position in space. For multiple target tracking, we have introduced a new motion model that incorporates an acceleration component along the heading direction of the target. We have also shown that the target motion parameters can be considered part of a more general feature set for target tracking, e.g., target frequencies, which may be unrelated to the target motion, can be used to improve the tracking performance. We have introduced an acoustic multiple-target tracker using a flexible observation model based on an image tracking approach by assuming that the DOA observations might be spurious and that some of the DOAs might be missing in the observation set. We have also addressed the acoustic calibration problem from sources of opportunity such as beacons or a moving source. We have derived and compared several calibration methods for the case where the node can hear a moving source whose position can be reported back to the node.
The particle filter, as a recursive algorithm, requires an initialization phase prior to tracking a state vector. The Metropolis-Hastings (MH) algorithm has been used for sampling from intractable multivariate target distributions and is well suited for the initialization problem. Since the particle filter only needs samples around the mode, we have modified the MH algorithm to generate samples distributed around the modes of the target posterior. By simulations, we show that this mode hungry algorithm converges an order of magnitude faster than the original MH scheme. Finally, we have developed a general framework for the joint state-space tracking problem. A proposal strategy for joint state-space tracking using the particle filters is defined by carefully placing the random support of the joint filter in the region where the final posterior is likely to lie. Computer simulations demonstrate improved performance and robustness of the joint state-space when using the new particle proposal strategy.
Advisor:Branislav Vidakovic; Monson Hayes III; Lance Kaplan; Aaron Lanterman; James H. McClellan
School:Georgia Institute of Technology
School Location:USA - Georgia
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:electrical and computer engineering
Date of Publication:01/18/2005