Back To Basics In Indonesia? Reassessing The Pancasila And Pancasila State And Society, 1945-2007
Both the Old and New Order governments in Indonesia declared that their state system was based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution. Most Westerners and many Indonesians believed that the Pancasila under the New Order was but a euphemistic disguise for authoritarian governance, re-articulated by cunning ideologues in army circles to suppress society and to consolidate the power of Suharto and the military. This dissertation argues that the continuous return to the Pancasila by successive regimes in Indonesia reflected the fundamental fears and anxieties of these leaderships as they grappled with the project of nation-building in Indonesia. The Pancasila was seen as a panacea to the obstacles posed by ethnic, religious, and regional differences. By emphasizing civic values and citizenship as the foundation of the Indonesian nation, the leaders of different regimes sought to transcend these so-called primordial forces. The history of the Pancasila in Indonesia was thus a history of the Indonesian nation, and ultimately the struggle between the state and what it perceived as the divisive forces in society. Despite the perceived authoritarianism of the New Order regime, its failure to implement its Pancasila program was, in fact, the manifestation of its weaknesses vis-à-vis the forces of religion, region, and ethnicity in Indonesian society and its failure to subordinate them.
School Location:USA - Ohio
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:pancasila state democracy economy indonesian nationalism
Date of Publication:01/01/2008