Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis by gamma irradiation
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L 35S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C57Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L-35S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radioattenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeastcells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile.
Advisor:Antero Silva Ribeiro de Andrade; Maria José Neves; Heitor Franco de Andrade Junior
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Gamma radiation Vaccines
Date of Publication:03/31/2006