Association of Breakfast Consumption Patterns with Weight Status, Nutrient Intake, and Dietary Adequacy in African American Children 1-12 Years of Age and Adolescents 13-18 Years of Age
The purpose of these studies was to determine whether weight status, nutrient intake, and dietary adequacy were associated with breakfast consumption patterns. A representative sample of African American (AA) children and adolescents who participated in 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used in a secondary data analysis. Participants were first grouped by age: 1-12 years of age (y) (n=1,389), 13-18 y (n = 988) and then by breakfast consumption category: breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) consumers, and other breakfast consumers. A single multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall was conducted using computer-assisted software to record dietary intake. To estimate dietary adequacy, the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) was calculated by expressing micronutrient intake as a percentage of the Estimated Average Requirement , truncated to no more than 100%, and averaged over 13 micronutrients: vitamins A, E, C, B1, B2, B6, B12; niacin; folate; phosphorus; magnesium; iron; and zinc. Sample-weighted data were used in all statistical analyses. In children, 7.4% of AA 1-5 y and 16.9% of AA 6-12 y, respectively, skipped breakfast while RTEC consumers included 45% and 38%, respectively. In AA 13-18 y, 36.8% skipped breakfast and 19.4% consumed RTEC at breakfast. Ready-to-eat cereal consumers 1-12 y had the lowest mean body mass index (BMI) (p?0.05) and mean waist circumference (WC) (p?0.05). They also had the highest mean intakes of vitamins A, B-6, and B-12; thiamin; riboflavin; niacin; folate; calcium; iron; and zinc; highest MAR (p?0.05); and the highest intake of carbohydrates and total sugars, and the lowest intakes of total fat (p?0.05). RTEC consumers 13-18 y had lower mean WC (p?0.05) and BMI (p?0.05) than breakfast skippers. Adolescent RTEC consumers and other breakfast consumers had higher mean energy intakes than breakfast skippers (p?0.05) and had the highest MAR, while breakfast skippers had the lowest MAR (p<0.05). Adolescent RTEC breakfast consumers had higher intakes of vitamins A, B-6, B-12; thiamin; riboflavin, niacin; folate; and minerals calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, and potassium than breakfast skippers and other breakfast consumers (p<0.05). Consuming an RTEC breakfast was associated with improved weight, nutrient intake, and dietary adequacy in AA children and adolescents.
Advisor:Sarah H Pierce; Pamela A Monroe; Carol E O'Neil
School:Louisiana State University in Shreveport
School Location:USA - Louisiana
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:11/04/2008