Analysis, design, and optimization of antennas on CMOS integrated circuits for energy harvesting applications
Radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting is a promising technology that finds applications in such products as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Active Remote Sensing (ARS). In order to reduce the overall size and the manufacturing cost of the device, it is highly desirable to integrate the energy-harvesting antenna, onto the same monolithic CMOS integrated circuit as the functional circuitry. The focus of this dissertation is on the extension of the more traditional approach to antenna design while overcoming the many barriers to the design and analysis of tiny antennas that are fabricated on a CMOS die resulting in an extremely unfriendly environment. Specifically, the major challenges for building antennas on CMOS ICs have been identified. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was found to be the most suitable numerical method for the full-wave analyses of antennas on CMOS ICs after a comparison of the major numerical methods available for electromagnetic simulations. A complete power measurement system that requires no cable connection to the antenna under test has been constructed. It offers accurate measurement of the available power from the on-chip antennas with the help of the annealing approach to impedance matching, which was also developed in this research. The various design factors for antennas on CMOS ICs have been evaluated through both simulation and experiments. It was concluded that the properly designed spiral antennas are good candidates for the on-chip energy-harvesting applications.
Advisor:Marlin H. Mickle; James T. Cain; Ronald G. Hoelzeman; Qing-Ming Wang; Michael R. Lovell; Raymond R. Hoare
School:University of Pittsburgh
School Location:USA - Pennsylvania
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Date of Publication:10/14/2005