Details

Aktivierung und Differenzierung von T-Lymphozyten durch Infektion und Autoimmunität

by Kamradt, Thomas

Abstract (Summary)
Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental data suggest that infections can sometimes trigger or exacerbate autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type I diabetes, or rheumatoid arthritis. To date, the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading from infection to autoimmunity have not been defined. The molecular mimicry hypothesis proposes that crossreactive lymphocytes that recognize both self- and microbial antigens are key factors in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. According to the molecular mimicry hypothesis, sequence identity or marked sequence similarity between self- and microbial antigens is the cause of such crossreactivity. We have examined the molecular mimicry hypothesis systematically in two different models: treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). The major findings were: i) crossreactivity at the level of peptide recognition by T cells is far more frequent than previously expected; ii) structural criteria rather than sequence similarity determine cross-recognition; iii) immunoregulatory mechanisms normally prevent pathogenic effects mediated by crossreactive lymphocytes. Thus, the idea that crossrecognition of a defined microbial peptide and a particular self-peptide would explain autoimmunity is most likely too simple. The other major topic of this work was the immunological analysis of T1/ST2, a Th2-specific molecule that we characterized. Here, we could show that T1/ST2 is expressed on Th2 but not Th1 cells. Furthermore, T1/ST2 expression can be used to identify sites of ongoing Th2 reactions directly ex vivo. Most importantly, T1/ST2 is important for Th2 effector functions: crosslinking of T1/ST2 via a T1/ST2-specific monoclonal antibody induces proliferation and type 2-cytokine production. In vivo, administration of the soluble antibody against T1/ST2 ameliorates the immunological parameters of bronchial hyperreactivity in a murine model of asthma. Thus, T1/ST2 is a candidate target for therapeutic immunomodulation of diseases such as allergy and asthma.
This document abstract is also available in German.
Document Full Text
The full text for this document is available in German.
Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:

School:Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

School Location:Germany

Source Type:Master's Thesis

Keywords:Autoimmunität Kreuzreaktivität T1/ST2 Infection Autoimmunity Allergy T-lymphocytes cross-reactivity Lyme Disease Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis

ISBN:

Date of Publication:05/29/2001

© 2009 OpenThesis.org. All Rights Reserved.