This thesis asks whether is it possible in planning toformulate questions such that most participants feel invitedinto a discussion from the outset and discussions are notconducted from biased perspectives. The thesis concludes thatsuch questions are possible provided that they are supported toa large degree by the design of the discussion Agenda,participants really are interested in a mutual search forcreative answers, one party or actor does not have a powermonopoly?mentally, physically, economically,organisationwise or otherwise. The thesis analyses therelationship between methods and concepts used in physicalplanning and building?and the real outcome of planningdecisions.The tendency for narrow minded and non-creative planningdiscussions and processes can have two basic outcomes: 1) Aplan that fulfils only a few possible goals or values isexpedited through the decision process. 2) No change at all ispossible?the planning process ends with status quo. Thegoal of this thesis is to present a planning model whichpromotes a broad and open-minded discussion on planning issues.An agenda that focuses more on possibilities and potentials,less on consequences and conflicts is presented.The model consists of three perspectives?thehorizontal parameters; and ten aspects?the verticalparameters. ECN stands for three perspectives that I regard asequally important to consider in planning and building. Ifregarded as?the single most important and the superiorperspective?, any of these perspectives can result innarrow minded discussions and sub-optimal solutions. The threeperspectives underline the important need for?comprehensiveness?. According to my model, planningissues should be viewed from all three perspectives: E -Economic (financial) resources and perspectives. C - Cultural(humanistic) resources and perspectives. N - Natural(ecological) resources, and perspectives. Ten different aspectsare proposed. The ten aspects underline the need for creativediscussions. It is important to ask other questions than theusual ones. The ten aspects are formulated to involve differentactors in discussions that do not take their starting point infixed positions. The ten aspects are intended to help topromote open and creative discussions between different actorsand interests, as well as a willingness to focus onpossibilities and unforeseen potentials.Planning questions should be asked from these ten aspects:ECN 1: Resources?identify available ECNresources. ECN 2:Potential?find possibilities that make good use of theseresources. ECN 3: Sustainability?create stable androbust solutions. ECN 4: Diversity?achieve variation andpluralism. ECN 5: Precaution?minimise risks andirreversible negative effects. ECN 6: Subsidiarity?distribute power and responsibility. ECN 7: Attractivity?create inspiring and desired solution. ECN 8: Synergy?foster co-operation and mutual advantages. ECN 9 : Benchmarking?make references and comparisons. ECN 10: The DevilsAdvocate?establish risk manageme nt and preparedness forcatastrophe. The two first aspects (Resources and Potentials)describe what could be seen as the overall goal of planning -to find and make good use of existing resources so as to createnew possibilities.
School:Kungliga Tekniska högskolan
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Date of Publication:01/01/2002