Details

Adaptive secure data transmission method for OSI level 1

by Lallo, Pauli, PhD

Abstract (Summary)
This thesis discusses the problems of physical level data transmission of biomedical information systems over different channels in telecommunication networks. Existing standards of band-limited data transmission (modem standards) are base d on hardware technology and defined for fixed not varying channels characteristics (bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio etc). The methods recommended are not adaptive and thus modems do not show high performance used over different channels. On the other hand software based modulation systems use Fourier theory and algorithms in generation and detection of complex multi-carrier waveforms, which gives the possibility to obtain a higher performance than traditionally. Adaptive data communication based on software algorithms is used increasingly in modern wired and wireless communication networks as a result of technology development. These adaptive data communication methods give security and near optimal performance (bit rate, bit error rate etc) in different cases. These systems are investigated in this thesis and applied to the biomedical data transmission needs of the future. The research methods are: - Literary research is used in problem formulation and review of studies. - Measurement of data communication in digital network is an approach to investigate data transmission problems. - A robust tool (worksheet modeling and simulation) was developed for evaluation of voice coding, Gaussian or granular noise channels, and legacy and adaptive modulation methods. Simulations with this worksheet method help in investigating new modulation methods (waveforms). - Discrete Fourier transform is used as the main mathematical method throughout this thesis in the design of modulation methods and modeling of waveforms. Results are verified as: - Simulation results are verified with standard data modem measurements and literature. - A prototype adaptive modem is designed based on the simulation research results. - Research results are verified with field tests using adaptive modem prototypes. - Error performance and sensitivity study of the modeled communication system is made with data transmission simulations using band-limited adaptive multi-carrier data transmission waveforms over different channels. The results are: traffic analysis of a biomedical data system, design of a robust worksheet simulation system, formulation and analysis of the adaptive band-limited data transmission for Gaussian and granular channels, and an adaptive data modem prototype based on discrete Fourier transform (DFT) approach. The main contribution of the thesis is: formulation of the adaptive secure data communication method for OSI level one (physical), its potential application (a proposal) and new knowledge of the use of DFT in generation and detection of waveforms. 5 Adaptiivne turvaline infovahe tuse meetod OSI tasemele 1 Kokkuvõte Käesolevas väitekirjas käsitletakse probleeme, mis on seotud biomeditsiinilise info vahetusega telekommunikatsioonivõrkudes, kasutades erinevaid infokanaleid. Olemasolevad, piiratud riba korral kehtivad, infovahetusstandardid (modemi standardid) baseeruvad riistvaralisel tehnoloogial ja kehtivad fikseeritud, mitte muutuvate infokanali parameetrite korral (ribalaius, signaal-müra suhe jne). Soovitatud meetodid ei ole adaptiivsed ja sellised modemid ei saavuta kõrgeid tehnilisi näitajaid muutuvate infokanalite korral. Samal ajal tarkvaral baseeruvad modulatsioonisüsteemid kasutavad Fourier teisendust ning algoritme nii komplekssete multikandesageduslike signaalide genereerimisel kui detekteerimisel, mis annab võimaluse saavutada paremaid tehnilisi näitajaid kui eespoolnimetatud traditsiooniliste süsteemide abil. Tehnoloogilise arengu tulemusena leiab kaasaegsetes nii traat- kui ka traadita sidevõrkudes üha laiemat kasutamist adaptiivne andmevahetus, mis baseerub vastavatele tarkvaralistele algoritmidele. Sellised adaptiivsed infovahetusmeetodid kindlustavad parema turvalisuse ja optimaalsele lähedased tehnilised parameetrid (ülekandekiirus, vigade arv jne) väga erinevates olukordades. Käesolev väitekiri ongi pühendatud adaptiivsete süsteemide uurimisele, samuti nende praktilise kasutamise võimalustele tulevikus erinevates biomeditsiinilistes infosüsteemides. Töös kasutatud uurimismeetodid: • Kirjanduslikku uurimist on kasutatud probleemi formuleerimisel ja ülevaatelises osas. • Infovahetuse parameetrite mõõtmist digitaalses võrgus on kasutatud vastavate andmevahetuse probleemide uurimisel. • On välja töötatud lihtne töövahend (probleemi modelleerimiseks ja simuleerimiseks), mille abil on uuritud kõne kodeerimist, Gaussi ja digitaalseid mürakanaleid ning fikseeritud ja adaptiivseid modulatsioonimeetodeid. Selle väljatöötatud meetodiga simuleerimine võimaldas uurida erinevaid modulatsioonimeetodeid ja signaalikujusid. • Põhilise matemaatilise meetodina on selles väitekirjas kasutatud diskreetset Fourier teisendust nii erinevate modulatsiooniviiside väljatöötamisel kui ka signaalikujude modelleerimisel. Saadud tulemusi on kontrollitud, kasutades: • Simulatsioonide tulemusi on võrreldud nii standardsete modemite mõõtetulemustega kui ka kirjanduse põhjal. • Adaptiivse modemi prototüüp on välja töötatud kasutades simulatsioonidel saadud tulemusi. • Saadud uuringutulemusi on võrreldud erinevate adaptiivsete modemite prototüüpidele korraldatud testidega. • Modelleeritud infovahetussüsteemi vigade analüüsi ja tundlikkuse uurimisel on kasutatud piiratud sagedusribaga adaptiivse multikandesagedusliku signaaliga infovahetuse simuleerimist üle muutuvate kanalite. Töö käigus on saadud järgmised tulemused: biomeditsiinilise andmevahetussüsteemi info liikumise analüüs, lihtsa simulatsioonisüsteemi väljatöötamine, adaptiivse piiratud sagedusribaga infovahetuse formuleering ja analüüs nii Gaussi kui digitaalsete kanalite jaoks ning diskreetsel Fourier teisendusel (DFT) baseeruva adaptiivse modemi prototüübi väljatöötamine. Väitekirja põhiliseks panuseks on: adaptiivse turvalise infovahetuse meetodi OSI tasemele 1 formuleerimine, selle potentsiaalne kasutamine (ettepanekuna) ja uued teadmised DFT kasutamisest signaalide genereerimisel ja detekteerimisel. 6
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Bibliographical Information:

Advisor:Meigas, Kaljo

School:Tallinna Tehnikaülikool

School Location:Estonia

Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation

Keywords:biomeditsiinitehnoloogia, andmeside, andmeedastus, andmekaitse, dissertatsioonid,

ISBN:9985595602

Date of Publication:09/15/2005

Document Text (Pages 1-10)

Adaptive Secure Data
Transmission Method for OSI
Level 1

PAULI LALLO


Page 2

Tallinn University of Technology
Faculty of Information Technology

Dissertation was accepted for the defense of the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy in Engineering at Tallinn University of Technology in
August 2005.

Supervisor:

Opponents:

Prof. Kalju Meigas, Ph.D., Biomedical Engineering
Centre, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia

Prof. Ants Meister, Ph.D., Department of Radio and
Communication Engineering, Tallinn University of
Technology, Estonia

Dr. Frank Böhnke, Ph.D., Department of
Otorhinolaryngology, Technical University Munich,
Germany

Commencement: September 15, 2005

Declaration: I declare that this thesis is my original unaided work.
It is being submitted for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy in Engineering at Tallinn University of
Technology. It has not been submitted before for any
degree at any other university.

Pauli Lallo

Copyright Pauli Lallo 2005

ISSN 1406-4731

ISBN 9985-59-560-2

2


Page 3

Contents

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................... 5

KOKKUVÕTE .................................................................................................6

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................7

ABBREVIATIONS ...........................................................................................8

CHAPTER I ..................................................................................................11
1. Introduction................................................................................................... 11
1.1. Background..................................................................................................11
1.2. Motivation of the Work ...............................................................................12
1.3. Evolution of Telecommunications...............................................................13
1.3.1. Studies of Telecommunication ...............................................................13
1.3.2. Evolution to Adaptive Communications ................................................ 18
1.3.3. Discussion of Broadband Evolution .......................................................20
1.3.4. Discussion of Some Communication Problems .....................................20
1.4. Objectives of the Thesis...............................................................................21
1.5. Outline of the Work .....................................................................................21

CHAPTER II.................................................................................................23
2. Biomedical Data Processing and Transmission ......................................... 23
2.1. Biomedical Information Systems ................................................................ 23
2.2. Standards...................................................................................................... 27
2.3. Conclusions..................................................................................................28

CHAPTER III ...............................................................................................29
3. Analysis and Measurements ........................................................................ 29
3.1. Definition of Measurement Objects.............................................................29
3.2. Measurements .............................................................................................. 30
3.3. Measurement Results and Analysis .............................................................33
3.3.1. Discussion of Measurement Results......................................................... 35
3.3.2 Analysis of Packet Switching ................................................................... 36

CHAPTER IV ...............................................................................................41
4. Data Transmission in Channels and Networks - A Simulation Study.....41
4.1. Worksheet Simulator ................................................................................... 41
4.2 Modeling of Data Transmission ..................................................................43
4.3. Adaptive Delta Modulation and Granular Channel .....................................46
4.3.1. Distortion of Signals in Granular Channel ...............................................54
4.3.2. Simulation Results of Analog Data Transmission.................................... 56
4.4. Simulations of Biomedical Data Networks ................................................. 63
4.5. Summary...................................................................................................... 65

3


Page 4

CHAPTER V .................................................................................................66
5. A DFT-Based Approach to Adaptive Data Communications................... 66
5.1. Basic theory ................................................................................................. 66
5.2. Adaptive Modem ......................................................................................... 70
5.3. Generation of Symbol Waveforms .............................................................. 72
5.4. Soft Detection of Symbol Waveforms......................................................... 77
5.5. Implementation and Test Results of Adaptive Modem ...............................80
5.5.1. Simulated Waveforms .............................................................................. 80
5.5.2 Field Tests................................................................................................. 80
5.6. Discussion of Fourier Theory, Limitations and Applications .....................85
5.7. Adaptive Multi-Carrier Data Communications ........................................... 88
5.8 Adaptive Selection of Modulation Method ................................................. 89
5.8. Adaptive Secure Data Transmission Method for OSI Level 1 .................... 93
5.9. Sensitivity Analysis of Adaptive Data Communications ............................ 97
5.9.1. Sensitivity of the Soft DFT Detection in AWGN-Channel...................... 97
5.9.2. Sensitivity of the Signal Detection in Granular Channel..........................98
5.9.3. Frequency Deviation Sensitivity of the Soft Signal Detection................. 99
5.9.4. Frequency Deviation Sensitivity of the Soft DFT Detection in ADM –

Channel ................................................................................................... 100
5.9.5. Sensitivity of the Soft DFT Detection in Granular Noisy Channel

(ADM-channel)....................................................................................... 101
5.9.6. Sensitivity of the Soft DFT Detection in Multi-Path Noisy Channel.....102
5.9.7. Orthogonal Signal Space ........................................................................ 103

CHAPTER VI .............................................................................................104
6. Summary .....................................................................................................104

LIST OF ORIGINAL PAPERS......................................................................105

REFERENCES.............................................................................................106

APPENDIX 1:
MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND OF SOME TRANSFORMS ......................111

APPENDIX 2:

A HIGH-LEVEL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A DMT/OFDM SYSTEM..................114

APPENDIX 3:

XDSL CAPACITY VERSUS DISTANCE ......................................................115

4


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Adaptive secure data transmission method for OSI level 1

Abstract

This thesis discusses the problems of physical level data transmission of biomedical
information systems over different channels in telecommunication networks. Existing standards
of band-limited data transmission (modem standards) are based on hardware technology and
defined for fixed not varying channels characteristics (bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio etc). The
methods recommended are not adaptive and thus modems do not show high performance used
over different channels. On the other hand software based modulation systems use Fourier theory
and algorithms in generation and detection of complex multi-carrier waveforms, which
gives the possibility to obtain a higher performance than traditionally. Adaptive data communication
based on software algorithms is used increasingly in modern wired and wireless communication
networks as a result of technology development. These adaptive data communication
methods give security and near optimal performance (bit rate, bit error rate etc) in different
cases. These systems are investigated in this thesis and applied to the biomedical data transmission
needs of the future.

The research methods are:
- Literary research is used in problem formulation and review of studies.
- Measurement of data communication in digital network is an approach to investigate data

transmission problems.
- A robust tool (worksheet modeling and simulation) was developed for evaluation of voice

coding, Gaussian or granular noise channels, and legacy and adaptive modulation methods.
Simulations with this worksheet method help in investigating new modulation methods
(waveforms).
- Discrete Fourier transform is used as the main mathematical method throughout this thesis

in the design of modulation methods and modeling of waveforms.

Results are verified as:
- Simulation results are verified with standard data modem measurements and literature.
- A prototype adaptive modem is designed based on the simulation research results.
- Research results are verified with field tests using adaptive modem prototypes.
- Error performance and sensitivity study of the modeled communication system is made

with data transmission simulations using band-limited adaptive multi-carrier data transmission
waveforms over different channels.

The results are: traffic analysis of a biomedical data system, design of a robust worksheet
simulation system, formulation and analysis of the adaptive band-limited data transmission for
Gaussian and granular channels, and an adaptive data modem prototype based on discrete Fourier
transform (DFT) approach. The main contribution of the thesis is: formulation of the adaptive
secure data communication method for OSI level one (physical), its potential application
(a proposal) and new knowledge of the use of DFT in generation and detection of waveforms.

5


Page 6

Adaptiivne turvaline infovahetuse meetod OSI tasemele 1

Kokkuvõte

Käesolevas väitekirjas käsitletakse probleeme, mis on seotud biomeditsiinilise info vahetusega
telekommunikatsioonivõrkudes, kasutades erinevaid infokanaleid. Olemasolevad, piiratud riba
korral kehtivad, infovahetusstandardid (modemi standardid) baseeruvad riistvaralisel tehnoloogial
ja kehtivad fikseeritud, mitte muutuvate infokanali parameetrite korral (ribalaius, signaal-müra
suhe jne). Soovitatud meetodid ei ole adaptiivsed ja sellised modemid ei saavuta
kõrgeid tehnilisi näitajaid muutuvate infokanalite korral. Samal ajal tarkvaral baseeruvad modulatsioonisüsteemid
kasutavad Fourier teisendust ning algoritme nii komplekssete multikandesageduslike
signaalide genereerimisel kui detekteerimisel, mis annab võimaluse saavutada
paremaid tehnilisi näitajaid kui eespoolnimetatud traditsiooniliste süsteemide abil. Tehnoloogilise
arengu tulemusena leiab
kaasaegsetes nii traat- kui ka traadita sidevõrkudes üha laiemat kasutamist adaptiivne
andmevahetus, mis baseerub vastavatele tarkvaralistele algoritmidele. Sellised adaptiivsed
infovahetusmeetodid kindlustavad parema turvalisuse ja optimaalsele lähedased tehnilised
parameetrid (ülekandekiirus, vigade arv jne) väga erinevates olukordades. Käesolev väitekiri
ongi pühendatud adaptiivsete süsteemide uurimisele, samuti nende praktilise kasutamise võimalustele
tulevikus erinevates biomeditsiinilistes infosüsteemides.

Töös kasutatud uurimismeetodid:
Kirjanduslikku uurimist on kasutatud probleemi formuleerimisel ja ülevaatelises osas.
Infovahetuse parameetrite mõõtmist digitaalses võrgus on kasutatud vastavate

andmevahetuse probleemide uurimisel.
On välja töötatud lihtne töövahend (probleemi modelleerimiseks ja simuleerimiseks),

mille abil on uuritud kõne kodeerimist, Gaussi ja digitaalseid mürakanaleid ning
fikseeritud ja adaptiivseid modulatsioonimeetodeid. Selle väljatöötatud meetodiga
simuleerimine võimaldas uurida erinevaid modulatsioonimeetodeid ja signaalikujusid.

Põhilise matemaatilise meetodina on selles väitekirjas kasutatud diskreetset Fourier
teisendust nii erinevate modulatsiooniviiside väljatöötamisel kui ka signaalikujude
modelleerimisel.

Saadud tulemusi on kontrollitud, kasutades:
Simulatsioonide tulemusi on võrreldud nii standardsete modemite mõõtetulemustega

kui ka kirjanduse põhjal.
Adaptiivse modemi prototüüp on välja töötatud kasutades simulatsioonidel saadud

tulemusi.
Saadud uuringutulemusi on võrreldud erinevate adaptiivsete modemite prototüüpidele

korraldatud testidega.
Modelleeritud infovahetussüsteemi vigade analüüsi ja tundlikkuse uurimisel on kasutatud
piiratud sagedusribaga adaptiivse multikandesagedusliku signaaliga infovahetuse
simuleerimist üle muutuvate kanalite.

Töö käigus on saadud järgmised tulemused: biomeditsiinilise andmevahetussüsteemi info
liikumise analüüs, lihtsa simulatsioonisüsteemi väljatöötamine, adaptiivse piiratud sagedusribaga
infovahetuse formuleering ja analüüs nii Gaussi kui digitaalsete kanalite jaoks ning diskreetsel
Fourier teisendusel (DFT) baseeruva adaptiivse modemi prototüübi väljatöötamine.
Väitekirja põhiliseks panuseks on: adaptiivse turvalise infovahetuse meetodi OSI tasemele 1
formuleerimine, selle potentsiaalne kasutamine (ettepanekuna) ja uued teadmised DFT
kasutamisest signaalide genereerimisel ja detekteerimisel.

6


Page 7

Acknowledgements

First of all, I thank my supervisor Professor Kalju Meigas accepting me as his student in
Tallinn and helping me in starting and finding practical solutions during the research
process.

I express my gratitude to many people in Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) for their
excellent contacts to Tallinn University of Technology. Without their knowledge I would
never have started my research in Tallinn. I express my gratitude to Professor Seppo J.
Halme, the former chief of the Communications Laboratory at HUT, who was my instructor
in simulation research and modem prototype development.

Special thanks to Mr. Lloyd Bethell.

I acknowledge the funding of the Foundation of Technology, the Finnish Society of Electronics
Engineers, the Scientific Advisory Board for Defence, the National Technology
Fund, and the Foundation for Finnish Inventions.

My family, especially my father, my wife Raili and our children have supported me - I
would never have finished my PhD research without their encouragement.

7


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8
Abbreviations
xDSL All types of DSL
A/D Analogue/digital, analog-to-digital
ACR The American College of Radiology
A/D Analog-to-Digital
ADC Analog-to-Digital Converter
ADM Adaptive Delta Modulation
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
ANSI The American National Standard Institute
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASIC Application-Specific Integrated Circuit
AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise
BER Bit Error Rate
BICM Bit Interleaved Code Modulation
B-ISDN Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network
BLER Block Error Rate
BW Bandwidth
C
2 Command and Control
CCD Charge Coupled Device
CGI Common Gateway Interface
CP Cyclic Prefix
CR Computed Radiography
CT Computed Tomography
D/A Digital-to-Analog
DAB Digital Audio Broadcasting
DAC Digital-to-Analog Converter
DF Digital Fluoroscopic imaging, Dark Field microscopy
DFT Discrete Fourier Transform
DICOM The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine
DM Delta Modulation
DMT Discrete Multi-Tone
DPSK Differential Phase Shift Keying
DSL Digital Subscriber Line
DSP Digital Signal Processor
DVB Digital Video Broadcasting
ED Euclidean Distance
ESM European Simulation Multiconference
ETSI The European Telecommunication Standard Institute
EUROCOM Communications Committee of Eurogroup
FAX Facsimile
FDF Finnish Defence Forces
FDM Frequency Division Multiplex

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9
FEQ Frequency Domain Equalizer
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
FH Frequency Hopping
FPGA Field-Programmable Gate Array
FSK Frequency Shift Keying
HDTV High Definition TeleVision
HIS Hospital Information System
IDFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc
IETF The Internet Engineering Task Force
IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
IMAC Image MAnagement and Communication
IN Input
IP Internet Protocol
ISAC Image Save and Carry
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISI Inter Symbol Interference
ISO International Standards Organization
ITU International Telecommunications Union
ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector
JIRA Code name of an issue tracking and project management application
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
JTRS Joint Tactical Radio System
LAN Local Area Network
MB Megabyte
MCM Multi-Carrier Modulation
MDIS The Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support system
MFC Multi frequency code
MFSK M-ary noncoherent Frequency Shift Keying
MIB Medical Instrumentation Bus
MILCOM IEEE Military Communications Conference
MIPS Million Instructions Per Second
MLA Modulation Level Analyzer
MR Magnetic Resonance
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
NC Numerical Control
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OOA Object-Oriented Analysis
OOK On/Off Key modulation
OSI Open Systems Interconnect model of ISO
OSE Operational Spectrum Effectiveness
OUT Output
PACS Picture Archiving and Communications System
PAPR Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
PC Peersonal Computer
PCASSO Patient-Centered Access to Secure Systems Online
PCM Pulse Code Modulation
PCT International PCT Patent Application (PCT/FI99/00952)
PHD-RS Personal Health Data Recording System
PSK Phase Shift Keying
PSP Polynomial Signal Processing
PSTN Public Switched Ttelephone Network
PTWC The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

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R2 A regional signaling system of ITU-T
RF Radio Frequency
RFC Request for Comments
RI Radiological Information
RIS Radiological Information System
RND Random
ROC Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis
(Metz, 1978; Zweig & Campbell, 1993)
RSTP Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RX Receiver
SDR Software Defined Radio
SL Loss of Synchronization
S/N Signal power over average white noise
SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Sync Synchronization
TCM Trellis-Coded Modulation
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
TDM Time Division Multiplexing
TEQ Time Domain Equalizer
THD Total Harmonic Distortion
TX Transmitter
UHF Ultra High Frequency 300 MHz – 3 GHz
UMTS™ Universal Mobile Telephone Service
UWB Ultra Wide Band
VDSL Very high rate Digital Subscriber Line
VF Voice Frequency
VHF Very High Frequency 30 – 300 MHz
WLAN Wireless Local Area Network
WNW Wideband Networking Waveform
X-CT X-ray Computed Tomography
XFT eXtra Fast Transport

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