The 4.3 Incident: Background, Development, and Pacification, 1945-1949
This dissertation explores the background and the development of the 4.3 Incident in South Korea. The 4.3 Incident was an insurgency that lasted nine years in Cheju-do off the Korea peninsula from April 3, 1948. The Cheju Communists took the political initiative based on their long lasting anti-Japanese movement and the late establishment of the local Military Government in Chejudo after the liberation in 1945. The Cheju Communists played roles of a de facto government in the island, and passed the General Strike and the Autumn Harvest Rebellion of 1946 because of their independence from a national Communist organization.
However, with the installation of provincial system on the island in late 1946 and the creation of the South Korea Labor Party (SKLP), the Cheju Communists transformed form workers of the de facto government to the members of a political party. The Military Government and the Cheju Communists began to confront each other after the memorial service of the March 1 Movement in 1947. Under the increasing pressure of the Military Government, young Cheju Communist leaders became determined to rise against the Military Government, and the Chollanam-do SKLP exploited their intention to sabotage the general election on May 10, 1948.
The disturbances in the beginning phase of the 4.3 Incident were common disturbances led by decentralized SKLP organizations. However, due to the strong reactions of the Military Government, the Cheju Communists evolved from street fighters to guerrilla warriors. With the intervention of the Central SKLP, the guerrillas were reorganized into a Soviet Military style, and Dalsam Kim, the guerrilla leader, evacuated the island and became a representative of the Supreme People?uro;™s Assembly of North Korea.
The Military Government, at first, tried to resolve the disturbance by police operations and peace talks. Then, the Military Government understood the insurgency as guerrilla warfare. The Korean Constabulary took the responsibility of the pacification under the command of U.S. officers. After the establishment of South Korean government and the intervention of the Central SKLP, the insurgency turned into a war between South Korea and North Korea. The 4.3 Incident was the first round of the Korean War.
School:The Ohio State University
School Location:USA - Ohio
Source Type:Master's Thesis
Keywords:the 4 3 incident korean war chejudo jejudo
Date of Publication:01/01/2008