?1-acid glycoprotein modulates thefunction of human neutrophils andplatelets
The acute-phase protein ?1-acid glycoprotein (AGP; orosomucoid) was initially identified andcharacterised in the 1950s. The normal plasma concentration is around 0.5-1 mg/ml butduring inflammation the concentration increase several fold and the carbohydrate compositionof the protein changes. AGP is a highly glycosylated protein with 45 % of the molecularweight consisting of glycans. These glycans are believed to be of importance for the functionof the protein. However, the precise physiological role of AGP is still unclear.The present thesis reveals that AGP at physiological concentration induce calcium elevationin human neutrophils and platelets. In neutrophils this response was enhanced several fold ifsurface L-selectin was pre-engaged. Our results showed that this L-selectin-mediatedamplification was abolished if the neutrophils were pre-treated with Src or phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors. AGP alone did not induce production of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in neutrophils. However, if the neutrophils were activated by the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) a subsequent addition of AGP caused aprominent ROS response. Moreover, both the calcium rise and the ROS response weredepending on sialic acid residues on AGP. In the case of calcium elevation we defined thereceptor as sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-5 on the neutrophil.In platelets, AGP induced a Rho-kinase dependent phosphorylation of myosin phosphatasetarget subunit-1 (MYPT1) and a minor calcium response. This resulted in a prominent plateletshape change (i.e. spherical shape and granule centralization) recorded as change in lighttransmission and by differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The shape changecaused by AGP was strongly suppressed by inhibition of Rho-kinase and abolished by Rhokinaseinhibition combined with chelation of intracellular calcium. No other manifestations ofplatelet activation like aggregation or secretion were registered. Opposite to neutrophils theeffect of AGP on platelets was not mediated by an interaction between sialic acid and siglecmolecules. However, the results indicated that AGP may bind to a collagen/thrombospondin-1surface receptor. Endogenous inhibitors like nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine abolished theAGP-induced platelet shape change. The antagonizing action of NO on shape change causedby AGP was long acting. In comparison, other aspects of agonist-induced platelet activation(e.g. intracellular calcium elevations) are only transiently suppressed by NO. This indicatesthat endothelium-derived NO may play a crucial role to counter balance the effect of AGP in vivo.Take together the results in this thesis reveal that AGP can initiate intracellular signalling andmodulate functional responses in neutrophils and platelets.
Source Type:Doctoral Dissertation
Date of Publication:01/01/2009